PARTS OF A PROKARYOTIC CELL / PARTES DE LA CÉLULA

1. Plasma Membrane / Membrana de Plasma

    Las células procariotas pueden tener una membrana de plasma. Como en todas las células, la membrana de plasma es responsable de qué sustancias entran en la célula y cuáles no.

 

    Prokaryotic cells can have multiple plasma membranes. As in all cells, the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells is responsible for controlling what gets into and out of the cell.

 

2. Cytoplasm / Citoplasma

    El citoplasma es como un fluido donde se encuentran todos los componentes de la célula dispersos. Es muy parecido al citoplasma de la célula eucariota pero esta no contiene orgánulos.

 

    The cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells is a gel-like substance in which all of the other cellular components are suspended. It is very similar to the eukaryotic cytoplasm, except that it does not contain organelles. 

 

3. Ribosomes / Ribosomas

    Los ribosomas procariotas son más pequeños y tienen una forma diferente a los de la célula eucariota. Como la célula eucariota, los ribosomas procariotas producen protenías según los mensajes enviados por el ADN.

 

    Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller and have a slightly different shape and composition tan those found in eukaryotic cells. Just like in eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic ribosomes build proteins according to the messages sent by the DNA. 

 

4. Genetic Material / Material Genético

    Todas las células procariotas tienen grandes cantidades de material genético proveniente del ADN y RNA. Los genes del ADN son necesarios para que la célula crezca, sobrevivan y se reproduzca se encuentran en el citoplasma.

 

    All prokaryotic cells contain large quantities of genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA. Because prokaryotic cells, by definition, do not have a nucleus, the single large circular strand of DNA containing most of the genes needed for cell growth, survival, and reproduction is found in the cytoplasm.

 

5. Plasmids / Plásmidos

Muchas células procariotas también contienen pequeñas piezas de ADN llamados plásmidos.

 

Many prokaryotic cells also contain small pieces of DNA called plasmids.

 

6. Pili / Pili

Estos anillos circulares de ADN se replican independientemente del cromosoma y pueden ser transferidos de una célula procariota a otro a través de pili, que son pequeños proyecciones de la membrana celular que puede formar canales físicos con los pili de las células adyacentes.

 

These circular rings of DNA are replicated independently of the chromosome and can be transferred from one prokaryotic cell to another through pili, which are small projections of the cell membrane that can form physical channels with the pili of adjacent cells.

 

7. Cell Wall / Pared celular

La pared celular es una pared flexible, fuerte y dura que a veces tienen algunos tipos de células. Las funciones principales de la pared celular es nivelar la presión y previene que el agua entre en la célula.

 

The cell wall is a very tough, flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cell. The major function of the cell wall is to act as a pressure vessel and preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell.

 

8. Capsule / Cápsula

La cápsula es una larga estructura que tienen algunas células procariotas. Es una capa que envuelve a la célula o bacteria. Podría ser la causa de varias enfermedades.

 

The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a layer that covers the cell or bacteria. It can be the cause of various diseases.

 

9. Flagellum / Flagelo

El flagelo es un apéndice que tienen algunas células. La función principal del flagelo es la locomoción pero también tiene es un sensor que puede detectar químicos y temperaturas fuera de la célula. Hay muchos tipos de flagelos. Tanto el flagelo de la célula procariota y eucariota están hechos de la misma composición, estructura y mecanismo. Pero los dos sirven para nadar.

 

A flagellum is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The primary role of the flagellum is locomotion but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell. There are large differences between different types of flagella; the prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion. However, both are used for swimming.

 

CURIOSITY

Are Prokaryotic cells simpler than eukaryotic cells?

    Prokaryotic cells are often viewed as "simpler" or "less complex" than eukaryotic cells. In some ways, this is true: prokaryotic cells usually have fewer visible structures, and the structures they do have are smaller than those seen in eukaryotic cells. Don’t be fooled, however, into thinking that just because prokaryotic cells seem "simple" that they are somehow inferior to or lower than eukaryotic cells and organisms. 

    Prokaryotic cells are also able to pull off stuff that eukaryotic cells could only dream of, in part because of their increased simplicity. Being bigger and more complex is not always better. These cells and organisms are just as adapted to their local conditions as any eukaryote, and in that sense, are just as “evolved” as any other living organism on Earth

Source: http://www.shmoop.com/biology-cells/prokaryotic-cells.html

 

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